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Another important factorin the hydrogeology of the nigerian basement complex is weathering the weathered mantle is known to provide avenues through which water can percolate. Weathering may there for render the normally impermeable crystalline rocks suitable foringress and storage of water in prospecting for groundwater in these areas, One needs there fore to.

  • Determine the lateral and vertical limits of the diastrophic features like faults, fractures , joints and shears.
  • Delimit the extent and thickness of the weathered mantle and
  • Estimate quantitatively the porosity and permeability of rock samplesin the laboratory.

It is necessary to employ geophysical methods to locate zones of weakness (i.E.Diastrophic features)And areas of deep weatheringln the rocks

Groundwater is exploitable naturally through springs and artificially through wells and boreholes springs are quite commonin nigeria's basement complex area their number, distribution and discharge are good indications of the occurrence of groundwater the large number of hand dug wells in the rural areas not supplied with pipe-borne water is also an indication that considerable water is available underground.

The importance of water to man can not be over emphasized. He can survive without food than water. Therefore modern man like his primitive ancestors is heavily dependent on water for his sustenance. The oil-rich countries of the arid and semiarid areas have learnt from experiance that water is as much a resource as oil. Water is a necessary social amenity.The provision of pipe-borne water can help in eradicating water-borne diseases and in improving the general sanitation of nigeria's towns and villages.

A whole is well endowed with water resources.The country is well drained with a reasonably close network of rivers and streams.Some of these rivera, particularly the smaller ones, are however seasonal, especially in the northern parts of the country where the rainy season is only three or four months in duration, in addition, there are natural water bodies like lakes, ponds as well as lagoons, particularly in the coastal areas. The country's water problems arise from inadequate planning and management of the water resources and poor distribution of water in time and space in relation to man's needs.Since the ultimate source of water found on the earth's surface is precipitation, usually the water resources of a given areas are closely related to the rainfall over that areas.

Although as a whole is rich in surface water resources it is deficient in groundwater resources.This is because of the extensive areas of the country covered by the crystalline rocks of the basement complex which are poor aquifiers.These rocks cover about 50 percent of the country but at present contribute little to the groundwater supply. The basement complex rocks consisting mainly of igneous and metamorphic rocks are neither porous nor permeable except in areas where the rocks are cleaved, shattered, jointed, or fissured. Solid rocks of the basement complex have poprosities ranging from 1 to 3 percent. Although folds, faults, joints and shear zones are common, they are too localized to be of significant importance as reservoirsof water.